The END TIMES PROPHECY

 

Obadiah Prophecy

“… But upon Mount Sion shall be safety, and there shall be a Holy One…

And those who are saved again shall come up out of Mount Sion

that they may defend Mount Esau, and it shall be a kingdom to the Lord.”

 

There is a book in the Bible that many people are not aware of. Hidden in the midst of the pages it contains one chapter only; it is called – OBADIAH.

Saint Jerome, one of the Four Pre-eminent Doctors of the Church and author of Vulgate (the only official Bible of the church for over 1000 years, written in the 4th century AD), wrote about Obadiah prophecy:” the shortest of any in number of words, but yields to none.”

Obadiah, who wrote this prophecy, c. 8th century B.C., was the prophet of Edom, a mysterious land located south of Judea. His prophecy tells us about the destiny of the people of Edom, also called in the Bible – Mount Esau, and about establishing on earth the Kingdom of the Lord.

Saint Augustine of Hippo (Nov. 13, 354 – Aug. 28, 430), was one of very influential figures in the development of Western Christianity. In Roman Catholicism, as Jerome, Augustine is a Saint and Pre-eminent Doctor of the Church. In the introduction to his book, City of God, Etienne Gilson writes: “SAINT AUGUSTINE was one of those towering figures who so dominated his age that the age itself bears his name.”

De Civitate Dei, translated as The City of God, is a book of Christian philosophy; which was written by Augustine shortly after Visigots conquered Rome in 410 AD. Augustine is considered the most influential Father of the Church in Western Christianity, and his book, The City of God, profoundly shaped Western civilization.

In this masterpiece, City of God, St. Augustine wrote a commentary on the OBADIAH Prophecy, bringing the original fragments of the 4th century AD Bible.
In the Chapter 31.”Of the Predictions Concerning the Salvation of the World in Christ, in Obadiah”, Augustine cited the original version of the ending of prophecy which quotes:

“But upon Mount Sion shall be safety, and there shall be a Holy One.”

And a little after, at the end of the same prophecy, he says:

“21 And those who are saved again shall come up out of Mount Sion that they may defend Mount Esau, and it shall be a kingdom to the Lord.”

http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/120118.htm

What makes this prophecy so special is its timing; this prophecy written c. 3000 years ago, talks about present days Israel, which returning from three thousand years of exile is conquering the land of Palestine; and not only conquering, but establishing the Kingdom of God.

For the Obadiah prophecy to be fulfilled, and for the Kingdom of God to be established on Earth, the Israelites “shall come up out of Mount Sion, that they may DEFEND Mount Esau”. However, who knows today what Mount Esau is?

Esau, to whom Mount Esau refers, was the grandson of Abraham; he was the older of the twins born to Isaac and Rebekah. Esau was the founder of the Nations of Edom; while his younger twin brother Jacob, was the founder of Israel.

The story of those two brothers, Esau / Edom and Jacob / Israel, takes us back in to the times of Genesis, the first book of the Bible. In chapter 25 of Genesis, we learn about two patriarchs whose descendants will play a major role on the End Times stage. Who were those people born of two Spirits, what roles did they play in the development of our civilization in the last four millenniums?

The story of Esau and Jacob begins in a mysterious way; the Bible tells us that Isaac, the promised son of Abraham, married Rebekah the Aramean. However, after twenty years of a happy marriage Rebekah still couldn’t conceive. It bothered them a lot that they couldn’t have children, and Isaac prayed to the Lord for his wife. The Lord granted the wish to Isaac and Rebekah became pregnant.It wasn’t an easy pregnancy so Rebekah went to enquire to the Lord; and the Lord said to her:

“Two nations are in thy womb, and two manners of people shall be separated from thy bowels; and the one people shall be stronger than the other people; and the elder shall serve the younger.”

And when the time to deliver was fulfilled, there were twins in her womb. The first one to be delivered was Esau; he was reddish, so they called him Edom. Just after, with his hand holding Esau’s heel, Jacob was born; he was known later as Israel – ancestor of Israelites.

We all know about Jacob, Israel and Israelites; but do we know who ESAU is, what is the Mount Esau whom according to the Prophecy of Obadiah, the Israelites should go and DEFEND?

“And those who are saved again shall come up out of Mount Sion that they may DEFEND Mount Esau, and it shall be a kingdom to the Lord.”

 

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Published in: on June 13, 2013 at 4:00 pm  Leave a Comment  

King Esau and The Kings of Edom

 

Esau, king of Isin and founder of Edom

“And those who are saved again shall come up out of Mount Sion, that they may defend Mount Esau, and it shall be a kingdom to the Lord.”

(From City of God, Obadiah Prophecy)

 

Esau was one of those towering figures of the Patriarchal Era that greatly influenced development of our civilization.

He was the firstborn and beloved son of Isaac, and grandson of Patriarch Abraham. Esau played major role on political scene of Early Bronze Era; he was the carrier of Abrahamic religion, founder of the Nations of Edom, and bringer of our civilization.

Born c. 2040 B.C., to pastoral Patriarchal family of Isaac and Rebekah, Esau became not only shepherd and farmer, but also skillful hunter, warrior and leader.

Esau created union of powerful nations of early the 2nd millennium B.C.; however, he have achieved this not by conquest, but by intermarriage with Hittites, Ishmaelites and Hurrians.

Esau’s history, and history of his kingdom of Edom, is mentioned in several books of the Bible, other historical books, and he is also known from archeological excavation of Sumer.

In the archaeological record of Sumer, Esau is named Lipit-Eshtar, who inherited the throne of Isin from his uncle and father in law Ishme-Dagan (Ishmael).

Ishmael, the firstborn son and heir of Abraham, was the fourth king of Isin; in Sumerian list of kings he is called Ishme-Dagan – “Dagan heard.” His full title ran, “IshmeDagan, governor of Nippur, prince of Ur, Uddadu of Eridu, lord of Uruk, king of Isin, king of Sumer and Akkad, the beloved husband of Naua”.

After the death of his father in law, Esau – (Lipit Eshtar), became the fifth ruler of the first dynasty of Isin, and ruled from c.1934 BC to 1924 BC. Several documents and royal inscriptions describing Esau’s reign had survived, written on cuneiform tablets.

One of those tablets was discovered in the ruin of Nippur by the Pensilvania University team of 1889. Fifty years later, this tablet, inscribed in closely written Old Sumerian Cuneiform, was selected from amongst 3,000 tablets, and translated to reveal a partial summary of the legal code of Esau’s reign period. Group of related tablets allowed researches to complete the work, and Esau’s laws summary (Lipit – Eshtar Law Code) was publish in 1948.

Discovery of those tablets shows that fallowing the ground breaking laws set down by Ur-Namma, King of Ur in c. 2100 BC, it was Abraham’s grandson Esau, who drafted a formal legal code for Sumer and Akkad in 1930 BC. This Law Code of Esau, precedes the famous Law Code of Hammurabi a couple of centuries later.

This discovered in the ruin of Nippur, by the Pensilvania University team tablet, includes 38 sections from the second half of Esau’s Law Code. This part of the law code is dealing with real estate, servitude, interest rates, inheritance, marriage and penalties for damages to or caused by rented livestock. It is the first legal code to deal substantively with the inheritances of children of plural wives, including slave wives and prostitutes.

It is also the first to allow daughters to inherit from fathers.

Esau’s Law Code opens a window on social development of the period, including the first legal provision for child support. Legal code written in Esau’s name, were used for school instruction for hundreds of years after his death, but he is also known because Sumerian language hymns written in his honor.

Esau, also known as Edom, was the founder of the Nations of Edom, and the Bible, Genesis chapter 36, lists the names of kings who ruled the Nations of Edom after Esau’s death; and long before any king ruled over Israel.

Genesis 36 reads:

The Rulers of Edom

’31 These were the kings who reigned in Edom before any Israelite king reigned:

32 Bela son of Beor became king of Edom. His city was named Dinhabah.

33 When Bela died, Jobab (Job, known from the Book of Job) son of Zerah from Bozrah succeeded him as king.

34 When Jobab died, Husham from the land of the Temanites succeeded him as king.

35 When Husham died, Hadad son of Bedad, who defeated Midian in the country of Moab, succeeded him as king. His city was named Avith.

36 When Hadad died, Samlah from Masrekah succeeded him as king.

37 When Samlah died, Shaul from Rehoboth on the river (Euphrates) succeeded him as king.

38 When Shaul died, Baal-Hanan son of Akbor succeeded him as king.

39 When Baal-Hanan son of Akbor died, Hadad succeeded him as king. His city was named Pau, and his wife’s name was Mehetabel daughter of Matred, the daughter of Me-Zahab.”

This list of the kings, with the lands of their origin, indicates that the kings of Edom reign over the area from Egypt to the great river of Sumer, Euphrates. It was fulfillment of the promise God granted to Abraham, which says in Genesis 15:

“Do not be afraid, Abram. I am your shield, your very great reward”…

“To your descendants I give this land, from the Wadi of Egypt to the great river, the Euphrates.”

In Genesis 17 (KJV) we read that God made covenant with Abraham saying that he will became father of many Nations, and the ancestor of kings.

“1 And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him,

I am the Almighty God; walk before me, and be thou perfect.

2 And I will make my covenant between me and thee, and will multiply thee exceedingly…

4 As for me, behold, my covenant is with thee, and thou shalt be a father of many nations.

6 And I will make thee exceeding fruitful, and I will make nations of thee, and kings shall come out of thee.”

King Esau, the grandson of Abraham, and Esau’s kingdom of Edom, was fulfillment of the promise God gave to Abraham; and it all happened hundreds of years before Israel was released from the slavery of Egypt.

In the biblical verses quoted below, God promise Abraham that his firstborn son Ishmael, will be a king (king of Isin), and father of Twelve Princes.

Genesis 17 (KJV)

“18 And Abraham said unto God, O that Ishmael might live before thee!

19 And God said, Sarah thy wife shall bear thee a son indeed; and thou shalt call his name Isaac: and I will establish my covenant with him for an everlasting covenant and with his seed after him.

20 And as for Ishmael, I have heard thee:

Behold, I have blessed him, and will make him fruitful, and will multiply him exceedingly;

twelve princes shall he beget,

and I will make him a great nation.”

Although the Bible doesn’t directly portray Ishmael as a king, it is obvious that he was, because prince is a man or boy in a royal family, especially a son of a reigning king or queen.

Genesis Chapter 25, confirms God’s promise to Ishmael and lists the names of twelve princes who were born to him:

Genesis 25 (KJV)

“12 Now these are the generations of Ishmael, Abraham’s son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah’s handmaid, bare unto Abraham:

13 And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to their generations: the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebajoth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam,

14 And Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa,

15 Hadar, and Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah:

16 These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names, by their towns,

and by their castles; twelve princes according to their nations…

18 And they dwelt from Havilah unto Shur, that is before Egypt, as thou goest toward Assyria”.

Except the twelve Princes, Ishmael also fathered a daughter, Princess Basemath aslo called Mahalath; she was the one whom Esau, son of Isaac, took as a wife (Genesis 28:9).

We read in Wikipedia, that although born of Hagar, according to Mesopotamian law Ishmael was credited as Sarah’s son; a legal heir of Abraham.

http://74.125.155.132/search?q=cache…&ct=clnk&gl=ca

Islamic and Jewish traditions say that Hagar, the second wife of Abraham and mother of Ishmael, was in fact a Pharos’s daughter, whom he gifted to Abraham in exchange for Sarah.

Archeological record of Sumer confirms that Ishmael (Ishme-Dagan) was a king of Isin and says that Esau (Lipit-Eshtar), the first born son of Isaac, inherited the throne of Isin from his Uncle and Father in Law, Ishmael.

King Esau became founder of many nations, and one of those nations is called in Biblical Prophecy of Obadiah – Mount Esau.

 

Published in: on June 13, 2013 at 3:43 pm  Leave a Comment  

The Book of Job – Epiphany V

WHO WAS JOB?

Classical scholarship has not doubted Job existence; he was seen as a real and powerful figure. 

In the New Testament St. James (Jam. 5:11) refers to Job as an example of “patience,” which he would not have been likely to do had Job been only a fictitious person.

Christian scholars like Thomas Aquinas (Expositio), Augustine of Hippo (City of God), St. Jerome or Matthew Henry never doubted that Job and those who engaged in debate with him were genuine historical persons.

 Augustine of Hippo (Nov. 13, 354Aug. 28, 430) was one of the most important figures in the development of Western Christianity. In Roman Catholicism, he is a saint and pre-eminent Doctor of the Church. In the introduction to his book City of God,   Etienne Gilson writes “SAINT AUGUSTINE was one of those towering figures who so dominated his age that the age itself bears his name.” In this book, City of God (BOOK XVIII Ch 47)Saint Augustine wrote:

“For in very deed there was no other people who were specially called the people of God; but they cannot deny that there have been certain men even of other nations who belonged, not by earthly but heavenly fellowship, to the true Israelites, the citizens of the country that is above.  Because, if they deny this, they can be most easily confuted by the case of the holy and wonderful man Job, who was neither a native nor a proselyte, that is, a stranger joining the people of Israel, but, being bred of the Idumea (Edomite) race, arose there and died there too, and who is so praised by the divine oracle, that no man of his times is put on a level with him as regards justice and piety.” 

NPNF1-02. St. Augustin’s City ofGodand Christian Doctrine

http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf102.iv.XVIII.47.html

In the Bible Eze.14:14, (compare Eze.14:16, 20), speaks of “Job” in conjunction with “Noah and Daniel,” real persons.

The Septuagint, LXX is the most ancient translation of the Old Testament in to Greek and consequently is invaluable to critics for understanding and correcting the Hebrew text (Massorah). The Septuagint was translated into Konya Greek for the newly established library of Alexandria during the reign of king Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-247 B.C.). Its oldest existing manuscript (Codex Vaticanus) was written in fourth century AD. In the Septuagint translation of the Book of Job, there is a long subscription; similar subscription is found in Arabic version and it says:

Septuagint, LXX (Job CH 42:17)

17 And Job died, an old man and full of days: and it is written that he will rise again with those whom the Lord raises up. This man is described in the Syriac book as living in the land of Ausis, on the borders of Idumea and Arabia: and his name before was Jobab;  and having taken an Arabian wife, he begot a son whose name was Ennon. And he himself was the son of his father Zare, one of the sons of Esau, and of his mother Bosorrha, so that he was the fifth from Abraam. And these were the kings who reigned in Edom, which country he also ruled over: first, Balac, the son of Beor, and the name of his city was Dennaba: but after Balac, Jobab, who is called Job, and after him Asom, who was governor out of the country of Thaeman: and after him Adad, the son of Barad, who destroyed Madiam in the plain of Moab; and the name of his city was Gethaim. And his friends who came to him were Eliphaz, of the children of Esau, king of the Thaemanites, Baldad sovereign the Sauchaeans, Sophar king of the Minaeans.”

                                    

                                     

                                         ABRAHAM

     HAGAR (wife) (Gen.16:3)                          SARAH (wife) (Gen.17:15)

 ISHMAEL (firstborn son) (Gen.16:15)    ISAAC (promised son) (Gen.17:19)        I

Basemath (daughter of Ishmael) married ESAU (firstborn son of Issac) (Gen.36:3)           II

                             REUL (son of ESAU and BASEMATH) (Gen.36:4)                    III

                             ZERAH (son of REUL) (Gen.36:13)                                 IV

                              JOB (son of ZERAH) (Septuagint-Job42:17d)         Generation – V

 

After reading the Book of Job and comparing its protagonist with king Jobab from the list of elective kingship of Edomites in the Book of Genesis (Ch.36:32-39) and the Book of Chronicles1 (Ch.1:43-54) which says:

31 And these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there reigned any king over the children of Israel.                            

32 And Bela the son of Beor reigned in Edom: and the name of his city was Dinhabah.                                                                               

33 And Bela died, and Jobab the son of Zerah of Bozrah  reigned in his stead.”                                                                                   

one can see numerous similarities between Job and Jobab; the second king ofEdom. He was not the son of the first king Bela, but, as mentioned previously, was the son of Zerah, the son of Ruel, a son of Esau. His reign is briefly recorded as follows:

“And Bela died, and Jobab the son of Zerah of Bozrah  reigned in his stead.” (Gen. 36: 33.)

In the Qur’an Job is known as Ayyūb (Arabic: أيوب ) and is considered a main prophet in Islam. In the Arabic language the name Ayyūb is symbolic of the virtue of patience and Job is mentioned in several passages in the Qur’an. According to Ibn Ishaag, an eighth-century commentator on the Qur’an, Job was a Rumi (Byzantium?), an Edomite, who lived during the time of the Hebrew patriarchs. 

Some scholars of Orthodox Judaism maintain that Job was in fact one of the three advisors that Pharaoh consulted, prior to taking action against the increasingly multiplying “Children of Israel” mentioned in the Book of Exodus before the time of Moses’ birth. The episode is mentioned in the Talmud (Tractate Sotah): Balaam gives evil advice urging Pharaoh to kill the male new-born babies; Jethro opposes Pharoh and tells him not to harm the Israelites at all, and Job keeps silent and does not reveal even though he was personally opposed to Pharoh’s destructive plans.

The Talmud in Tractate Baba Batra 15a-16b goes to great lengths trying to ascertain when Job actually lived, citing many opinions and interpretation by leading sages. 

A careful reading of the Book of Job shows that even before his great testing, (with which alone the book is concerned,) Job was a person of very high rank amongst his contemporaries. The opening chapter tells of his great wealth and piety, and significantly adds:

“This man was the greatest of all the men of the east” (Job Ch.1:1).  His high rank, then, cannot be doubted; but this is not all. Further on in the Book of Job we find that Job occupied and held the leading position in the National Council with the sheiks of his people (Job 29:2, 7-9, and 21-24). He sat “chief” and “dwelt as a king in the army” (29vs.25). If he laughed at anyone’s counsel, showing thereby that he esteemed it poor advice, then others at once rejected it too, and “believed it not” (vs.24). They all recognized that Job’s intellectual ability, keen insight, and wide knowledge far exceeded all other members of the council; and they relied heavily upon him.   After his distressing trial was over, we are told that Job was greater and more blessed than even before (Job 42:12). That being so, it would be no surprise that upon the death of Bela, the first king of Edom, the National Council, composed of sheiks and other wise men, would elevate Job to the kingship. Indeed, we might well say it was a natural and logical step.      http://nabataea.net/edomch4.html 

 

 The English name of “Job” is derived from the Latin word “Iob”. The original name is bwya Aiyob; and its orthography is followed by the Chaldee, Syriac, and Arabic. This name is well attested as a West Semitic name in the second millennium B.C.; Egyptian Execration Text of the 17th century B.C. refers to Job as a king of Shutu, and Shutu is the name given in ancient Akkadian  language sources to certain nomadic groups of the Trans-Jordanian highlands. The name of Job is also known from 18th century B.C. Mari tablets, 18th century B.C. Alalakh cuneiform tablets, 16th century B.C. Ugaritic Documents and 15th century Amarana Letters.  All this indicates that Job was a well known figure in sixteen and seventeen century B.C. He was the king, the second King of Edom.              

But where and what wasEdom?

Published in: on February 25, 2012 at 5:46 am  Comments (3)  

The Book of Job – Epiphany IV

THE SCRIPT

The earliest writing (in Mesopotamia andEgypt) was either through stylized pictures, “pictograms”, or by combinations of wedge marks in clay, called “cuneiform” (meaning wedge shaped). Cuneiform seems to have developed from a system of pictograms like Egyptian “hieroglyphs” or at least “ideograms” (symbols which represent concepts). However unlike Egyptian both became more stylized allowing quicker easier imprinting on clay and developed into a system representing syllables. This was a significant advance because then for the first time any sentence or idea could be expressed and preserved in writing.

 Many thousands of documents on clay have been discovered using this system, most in Akkadian or Sumerian, languages of Mesopotamia (where cuneiform originated), but some from Ras Shamra (Ugarit) in a Canaanite dialect close to Hebrew.

Shortly after the invention of the alphabet followed.

At Serabit el Khadem in Sinai Sir Flinders Petrie discovered Semitic inscriptions dating back beyond the Exodus, and written actually in a rude alphabetical script, apparently derived from hieroglyphs.

“’These Serabit inscriptions’, he says, ‘show that common Syrian workmen were familiar with the art of writing in 1500 BC,”

[Sir F. Petrie, Researches in Sinai (1906).]

Similar inscriptions have since been found inPalestineitself, as, for example, on a potsherd atGezer, an ostrakon at Beth-shemesh, and the notable ewer recently found atLachish. Many scholars regard these Sinaitic inscriptions as exhibiting the ‘missing link’, as it were, in the evolution of the Phoenician alphabet from hieroglyphics.

‘Some Sinaitic miners imitated Egyptian, giving Canaanite (old Hebrew) values and names to the letters, e.g. aleph for oxhead, beth for house, &c. … Thus the alphabet was invented in the Sinaitic peninsula: thence carried to South Arabia: then to Canaan: and eventually toPhoenicia.’

[A. T. Olmstead,PalestineandSyria(1931).]

Beit-Arieh was a Senior Research Associate and Lecturer of theInstituteofArchaeologyatTelAvivUniversity. Since 1971 he has been the director of the Ophir Expedition in theSinai Peninsula. His work at Mine L, in the Serabit el-Khadim area was of great importance in establishing 1500 BCE (the cave-in date for Mine L.) as a time when there was a reasonably mature alphabet, reinforcing the probability that Proto-Sinaitic began to emerge about 1700 BCE.

Proto-Sinaitic Inscriptions

http://www.lib.byu.edu/~imaging/negev/Origins.html

If the the first alphabet was developed in Sinaitic peninsula and than carried to Southern Arabia, than it would be in agreement with the statement of John William Dawson, Canadian scientist, who wrote

It would now seem that the language and theology of the Book of Job can be better explained by supposing it to be a portion of Minean [Southern Arabia] literature obtained by Moses in Midian than in any other way.” 

It is hard to say if Job was the inventor of modern alphabet nevertheless, he have had simpler script than cuneiform at his command. However, was he able to print his book?                         

It is very doubtful that it was printed as Job has wished; however, there is something what puzzles archeologists and linguists for decades; an artifact which is over 3500years old, called the PHAISTOS DISK. Its alphabet is in sharp deviation to every other and pops one’s eyes open. The flat saucer-sized disk was found along with many contemporary Linear A tablets inside a stone hamper in the royal palace in Phaistos,Crete and it was written seventeen centuries BC. Cretans had left myriad tablets written in Linear A which probably was native to Crete and in Linear B which was native toMycenae,Greece, but this one used an alphabet found no where else on earth. More than that, the symbols (letters?) were not scratched into clay the way all those others were; they were printed: three thousand years before Gutenberg.

Published in: on February 25, 2012 at 5:33 am  Leave a Comment  

The Book of Job – Epiphany III

THE WRITER

Knowing now that the prime author of The Book of Job was the One who made the stars, the question still reminds, whom did God inspired to pen this book for future generations?

The book does not identify its writer. Scholarly opinion holds that the Book of Job was probably written by at least two authors, one who wrote a prose prologue and epilogue, and one who wrote a poetic middle section. There were later additions and revision of the poetry, perhaps as late as the 4th century BC.

Consequently many different scholars have made guesses as to who the writer was. From the patriarchal period Job himself is the favored candidate, though some scholars have nominated Elihu. These men seem to be the most likely of the chief characters to have preserved the record of Job’s trials because the book reads as though an eyewitness of the events recorded wrote it.

Jewish tradition favored Moses as the writer; they based their statements on the idea that Moses recorded other events during the patriarchal period in Genesis, he was familiar with desert life, and he had enough ability to write such a book as this one.

Some modern scholars tent to attribute the authorship to Isaiah basing their opinion on similarities in Job and prophetic writings of Isaiah.

The dating of the events from the Book of Job can provide some light on the authorship of the book. The conditions depicted in the book are similar to those in patriarchal era; like Abraham, Job wealth consisted of animals and servants; he offers sacrifices in behalf of his family without the meditation of priesthood. The monetary unit “kesitah” (Job 42:11), occurs only in Genesis 33:19 which is time of patriarchs. Job lived 140 years after his restoration (Job 42:16), an age exceeding that of the patriarchs (Abraham lived 175 years, Isaac 180 years). The divine name off God “Shaddai” (“The Almighty”) occurs 31 times in Job, as against its 16 occurrences in the rest of the Old Testament, mostly in Genesis. In Exodus 6:3, the Lord declares it was the name by which He reveled himself to the patriarchs.

Although deeply spiritual the book is not a religious one; there is no mention made of institution of Israel, whether temple, monarchy, prophets or priesthood, what indicates again the time of the patriarchs.

The three friends who visited Job are related in the Bible to the time of patriarch; Eliphaz is an Edomite name; he is Esau’s oldest son. This name is only mentioned in (Gen. 36:4; 1 Chr.1:35) In the Book of Job he is called the king of Themanites; Theman is capitol Edom (Am. 1:12). In Job 32:2 Elihu is called “…the son of Barachiel the Buzite, of the line of Ram.” Gen. 22:21 states that Buz was the second son of Abraham’s brother Nahor.

All this indicates that the time frame for the events of The Book of Job reflects the time of the patriarchs 1900 – 1700 B.C. Who then penned this book? We will consider each of the authors separately beginning with the last one – Isaiah.

The detailed recounting of the conversations that took place certainly suggests a composition date fairly close to that of the actual events; that has been the position of Jewish and Christian scholars until destructive criticism became popular in the last few centuries.

It is very unlikely that Isaiah, who has lived in the seventh century B.C., one thousand years after the time of patriarchs, would use for his writing non Israelite events from seventeen century B.C.; numerous and identical verses which occurs in Job and Isaiah i.e. : “35 They conceive mischief, and bring forth vanity, and their belly prepareth deceit.” (Job 15:35) – “4 None calleth for justice, nor any pleadeth for truth: they trust in vanity, and speak lies; they conceive mischief, and bring forth iniquity.” (Isa. 59:4); “11 As the waters fail from the sea, and the flood decayeth and drieth up:” (Job 14:11); – “5 And the waters shall fail from the sea, and the river shall be wasted and dried up.” (Isa. 19:5); “8 Which alone spreadeth out the heavens,” (Job 9:8); – “that stretcheth forth the heavens alone;” (Isa. 44:24); and in: (Job 16:17 – Isa.53:9); (Job 26:12 – Isa.51:15); shows only that the Book of Job was well known in the time of Isaiah and was used for his prophetical writings. Considering this similarities and the patriarchal time frame Isaiah can be excluded as the prime author of the poetic division of Job.

There is not much support for considering Elihu as the author of the Book of Job. All what is known about Elihu comes from the Book of Job where Elihu was a youth bystanders during the trial of Job. In Job Ch. 37 Elihu joined the discussion assuring Job of God’s wisdom and has prepared him for epiphany. Except of the Book of Job, Elihu is unknown from any other Biblical or outside Biblical sources.

Considering Moses or Job as the authors of the book has some solid background. Moses is the author of the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible; he wrote Genesis giving detailed account of the time of patriarchs. However, the language of the poetic part of Job which is important evidence in identifying the author of this book suggests different author then Moses.

Job appears to be written in a dialect distinct from the Jerusalemdialect use for most of the Old Testament; no Northwest Semitic text found to date is identical to this dialect. Languages that possibly influenced the language of Job and are displayed in the Job are: Aramaic, Akkadian, Egyptians, Ugaritic, Arabic and Phoenician; there are more than 250 parallels between Job and Ugaritic literature. In fact the language is Hebrew but differing from the normal Hebrew dialect used in other Old Testament books. In addition, over one hundred words in the Book of Job are not found elsewhere in the Hebrew Bible; most of the rarer words and forms appear in the poetic material of the dialogues, while the prose prologue and epilogue are written in the more classical style of the Hebrew Old Testament. Some linguist scholars use this as the evidence to argue for different origin of the two sections. In addition the style of poetry division of Job is not really Mosaic; Moses uses the name of “Yahweh”  often, whereas Job in the poetry part uses the name “Shaddai” (The Almighty).

Most of the futures mentioned above are reconcilable with the idea that the poetry part of the Book of Job was composed by a non-Israelite author on non-Israelite soil.

Jacques Bolduc suggested in his commentary of 1637, that the Book of Job may have been authored in a secondary way by Moses who found it in its original Aramaic form. His opinion is in partial agreement with the belief of Sir John William Dawson, Canadian scientist of worldwide reputation and long time principle of McGill, who wrote in The Expositor:

It would now seem that the language and theology of the Book of Job can be better explained by supposing it to be a portion of Minean [Southern Arabia] literature obtained by Moses in Midian than in any other way. This view also agrees better than any other with its references to natural objects, the art of mining, and other matters.”

Possibility that Job himself was the author of the book is supported by the date of the events in the book which leans toward a patriarchal age; the foreign tone of the book also allows for it to have been written by Job, (Arabic words, nomadic habits, illustrations from sandy plains, awareness of nature and the arts). It was also Job’s desire to preserve the story of his trial; in Ch.19:23-24  Job says:

“23 Oh that my words were now written! oh that they were printed in a book!

24 That they were graven with an iron pen and lead in the rock for ever!”

However, who was Job to be able to pen such a masterpiece, what did he know about writing or printing?

Published in: on February 25, 2012 at 5:28 am  Leave a Comment  

The Book of Job – Epiphany II

HISTORY AND SCIENCE

 Some people may question if it is important to dig in the history and search for someone who has lived thousands of years ago; however,  

 “We believe that history matters. A society out of touch with its past cannot have confidence in its future. History defines, educates and inspires us. It lives on in our historic environment. As custodians of our past, we will be judged by generations to come. We must value it, nurture it and pass it on.” The History Matters Declaration 2006.

Why is history so important? : “It broadens the mind”- Richard Evans; “It help us see resolution to our present conflicts” – Julian Richards: “It challenges our intellect”- Ludmilla Jordanova; “ It helps us fight prejudice” – Ruth Scurr; “ It enlarges our own humanity” – Peter Jones;  “It reminds us that individuals make a difference” – Joanna Bourke;         “It gives us a shared identity” – Barry Coward; “It shows us the complexity of situations”- John Hudson; “It make us see that we are not simply detached observers of events” Alun Munslow; – from BBC History August 2006.

 The book of Job, being the oldest book in existence, and the masterpiece of world literature has deeply influence our human society. Many people in ancient and modern times have been inspired and comforted by the piety and patience of Job.

In 1822, at the age of 65, William Blake, English poet and painter, began work on 21 illustrations for The Book of Job. These works were later admired by John Ruskin, who compared Blake favorably to Rembrandt.              

As the Nazi broke ground for Auschwitz camp, in spring of 1940, a 19 years old student and aspiring actor Karol Wojtyla, had just finished writing his second play in nearby Krakow; Job , a drama from the Old Testament. This play leads inexorably to the characteristic Wojtyla denouement and the divine whisper: “Be Not Afraid”. Later as John Paul II it would be his most repeated message whether in private audiences or the individuals within a very large crowd.

Examples can be endless, but who was the author of this masterpiece?

Considering that this book is the oldest book in existence, this question could be enigma with no answer at all; nevertheless, this book is worth searching for one. The oldest fragments of manuscripts of The Book of Job found among the Dead Sea scrolls in the Qumran caves are dated back to the second century B.C.; some of them are written in Aramaic, a language commonly use at that time, but some fragments are written in Palo-Hebrew, a language which was in use before the time of the Exile (six century BC). “This book was apparently well known in the days of Ezekiel, 600 B.C.” (Easton)  

In this case one may as well look for the author of The Book of Job between the stars in the sky; fortunately there are verses in Job Chapter 9, in which Job admires the work of God and says:

          8 Who (God) alone spreadeth out the heavens,

            and treadeth upon the waves of the sea;

         9 Who maketh Arcturus, Orion and Pleiades…”

A short note about these celestial bodies:

The seven stars of the PLEIADES are in reality a grouping of 250 suns. Photographs reveal that 250 blazing suns in this group are all traveling together in one common direction. From Lick Observatory came this statement of Dr. Robert J. Trumpler:                             

“The Pleiades stars may thus be compared to a swarm of birds,  flying together to a distant goal. This leaves no doubt that the Pleiades are not a temporary or accidental agglomeration of stars, but a system in which the stars are bound together by a close kinship”.

Garrett P. Serviss, the noted astronomer, wrote about the bands of ORION in his book Curiosities of the Sky: (Garrett P. Serviss, Curiosities of The Sky). 

 “At the present time this band consists of an almost perfect straight line. In the course of time, however, the two right-hand stars, Mintaka and Alnilam, will approach each other and form a naked-eye double;                                  but the third, Alnitak, will drift away eastward  so that the band will no longer exist.”

ARCTURUS, one of the greatest suns in the universe, is a runaway whose speed of flight is 257 miles per second; our sun is traveling only 12 ½ miles a second, but Arcturus is traveling 257 miles a second;     it could only be stopped by collision head on with a body of enormous mass. Barring such accidents, it must, as far as we can see, keep on until it has traversed our stellar system, whence it may escape and pass out into space beyond to join perhaps one of those other island universes. Charles Burckhalter, director of the Chabot Observatory atOakland, added an interesting note regarding this great sun:

“This high velocity places Arcturus in that very small class of stars that apparently are a law unto themselves. He is an outsider, a visitor, a stranger within the gates; to speak plainly, Arcturus is a runaway. Newton gives the velocity of a star under control as not more than 25 miles a second, and Arcturus is going 257 miles a second. Therefore, combined attraction of all the stars we know cannot stop him or even turn him in his path.”

In epiphany, The Book Job Ch.38, God reviles to Job some more secrets of the universe by merely raising questions concerning the wonders of His creation. Three of these questions found in  Job 38:31- 32, are:

“Canst thou bind the sweet influences of PLEIADES,                          

or loose the bands of ORION?

Canst thou guide ARCTURUS with his sons?”

When Mr. Burckhalter had his attention called to this text in the book of Job, he studied it in the light of modern discovery and made a statement that has attracted worldwide attention:

“The study of The Book of Job and its comparison with the latest scientific discoveries has brought me to the matured conviction that Job is an inspired book and was written by the One who made the stars.”

The Book of Job contains many more examples of scientific knowledge which precedes by thousands of years our modern discoveries; less than 200 years ago, through the advent of a massive telescopes, science learned about the great empty space in the North; nevertheless, over 3000 years earlier Job said: (Ch.26:7)

 “7 He stretcheth out the north over the empty place,”

and Job continue

“…and hangeth the earth upon nothing.”

Many ancient cultures had the idea of the earth being held up by the back of an animal, a Titan giant, or the body of goddess; in contrast somehow Job knew the truth. As Job Ch.26:8 continue, it says:

8 He bindeth up the waters in his thick clouds; and the cloud is not rent under them.”

And in Ch.36: 27-28 he goes on to explain the whole hydrologic cycle:

27 For he maketh small the drops of water: they pour down rain according to the vapour thereof: 

 28 Which the clouds do drop and distil upon man abundantly.”

This statement is from before 1500 B.C.; it wasn’t until data and measurement were taken all over entire hemisphere of the globe in our modern era that such an understanding of the hydrologic cycle was achieved. In Ch.26:12 Job says:

12 He [God] divideth the sea with his power,”

How did Job know about Gondwanaland; one sea and one continent?

And Ch. 40:15-24 is adding the description of a dinosaur, which is called Behemoth.

Some more examples of advance science mentioned in The Book of Job are:

The light travels (38:19);

some stars are bound in clusters (38:31);

there are springs in the sea (38:16);

the air has weight (28:25);

 each and every single snowflake is a uniquely symmetrical treasure (38:22);

there are valleys in the sea (38:16).

And there are more verses in this book which are new to our present scientific level of knowledge. One of them relates to foundation sockets in Job 38:6; an odd word (Hebrew) ‘adaneyah is used for “foundations” which is transliterated as Eden. This word is used for the sockets holding up the staves in the tabernacle (Ex. 26:19). It is used this manner a total of 52 times. Then it is used for the “sockets of the ideal king in Songs (5:15). The only place in Scripture where it is used for “foundation sockets” is in Job Ch. 38:6. The Alaska earthquake struck on Good Friday of 1964. Through the use of more than 200 seismographs operating worldwide using push waves and shock waves, scientists determined that foundation rock if earth is mantle rock. Surprisingly it was learned that underneath the oceans these mantle rock extends down for 2 – 5 miles but underneath each of the continents it extends downward 300 miles, truly providing a socket for each of the seven continents. This statement made over 3500 years ago in the Book of Job was proved accurate.

Published in: on February 25, 2012 at 4:12 am  Leave a Comment  

The Book of Job – Epiphany

INTRODUCTION
There is a book in the Bible, between the books of Poetry and Wisdom, which “stands alone among the books of the Old Testament” (Alexander 319 Erdmans); it is called The Book of Job, or more commonly this book is known as Job. “Most likely it was written by Job himself, and it is the most ancient book in existence.”(Henry 1).

The Book of Job is a didactic poem set in a prose framing device; it is one of the grandest portions of the inspired Scriptures, heavenly-replenished storehouse of comfort and instructions, the precious momentum of patriarchal theology.    Though JOB has been called the most difficult book of the Bible, it is a beautiful and inspiring work of literature.

The leading English poet of Victorian age, Alfred Lord Tennyson, who studied Hebrew having a mind to translate The Book of Job, called it, the

“…greatest poem of ancient and modern times.”

In the Abbey, and on his monument are written the words, “I know that my Redeemer liveth,”  from The Book of Job, which he had set to most beautiful music, and had asked to have written upon his tomb.” (POETS AND STATESMEN).

Opinion of Alfred Lord Tennyson was shared by leading poet, dramatist, and novelist of renascence era, Victor Hugo, who wrote:

Tomorrow, if all the literature was to be destroyed and it was left to me to retain one work only, I should save Job”. (Copeland).

When this work is studied carefully and critically, it becomes clear that The Book of Job is not an historical document, but a parable based on the life of a man well known in history. However, Job was an historical person; locations and names mentioned in the book were real and not fictitious.

In the past scholars did not doubt in Job’s existence and there was general agreement that Moses or Job himself were the authors of this masterpiece; however, in recent years, there is a trend in the lofty scholarship to turn away from the traditional beliefs in the origin, date and authorship of this book to the point that the scholars ignore logic to serve their purpose; they  try to turn Job’s story into a fable, and Job himself into an imaginary person. Some Bible scholars pretend to wonder, if in His wisdom or humor God concealed all clues, and now observes the pursuit of elusive or non-existing data. One may ask if this could be true; did Almighty God not preserve enough evidence that it could be found out, beyond reasonable doubt by whom, where and when The Book of Job was written?

These questions are part of a major building block in studying the context of every book. Although Job’s story is no prisoner of time – it’s timeless, the context is still important and necessary to fully understand its complete message. This essay is an epic journey in search for the footprints of Job and his lost civilization; its purpose is to expose by whom, when and were The Book of Job was written.

The theme of this book is the trial of its protagonist whose name is Job; and this book says that even before the trial

that man was perfect and upright, and one that feared God, and eschewed evil”.(Job Ch.1:1)

Job Chapter 29 discloses some more information regarding Job’s personality and says that he was the one who:

“12 …delivered the poor that cried, and the fatherless, and him that had none to help him”, he “ …caused the widow’s heart to sing for joy.”.

As the chapter continues Job says:

15 I was eyes to the blind, and feet was I to the lame.        

16 I was a father to the poor: and the cause which I knew not I searched out.   

 17 And I brake the jaws of the wicked and plucked the spoil out of his teeth.”                                                                 

 Job was a man of great wisdom and respect, he held the leading position in the National Council and  “dwelt as a king in the army” (Job Ch.29:25),                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     

The prose prologue Job Ch.1: 6-11, transfer the reader not only into different times but in to different dimension and reveals that:

6 … there was a day when the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them.        

7 And the LORD said unto Satan, Whence comest thou?   Then Satan answered the LORD, and said,

From going  to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it                

8 And the LORD said unto Satan, Hast thou considered my servant Job, that there is none like him in the earth, a perfect and an upright man, one that feareth God, and escheweth evil?                                        

 9 Then Satan answered the LORD, and said,                   

Doth Job fear God for nought                                                         

10 Hast not thou made an hedge about him, and about his house, and about all that he hath on every side? thou hast blessed the work of his hands, and his substance is increased in the land.                            

 11 But put forth thine hand now, and touch all that he hath and he will curse thee to thy face.”

Satan is the world’s first behaviorist; he claims Job is like Pavlov’s dog; he has been conditioned to love God; the more he serves the more he gets, so why not continue to serve God? In Ch.1 verse 12

“… the LORD said unto Satan,  Behold, all that he hath is in thy power;  only upon himself put not forth thine hand.                                    

 So Satan went forth from the presence of the LORD.”

Richly endowed in his own personal and domestic prosperity, Job suffers a sudden and complete reversal of fortune. He loses his property and all his children…but not his faith; loathsome disease afflicts his body and sorrow oppresses his soul; nevertheless, Job does not complain against God. In verse 21, Job utters a stirring declaration of faith, and says:                                                                         

“Naked came I out of my mother’s womb,

 and naked shall I return thither:

 the LORD gave, and the LORD hath taken away;

 blessed be the name of the LORD.”

Job loves God not for what he can get, but because He is worthy of love apart from the blessings He promises. Chapter one closes,

22 In all this Job sinned not, nor charged God foolishly.”

Job did nothing to deserve such devastation; Job has been tested without knowing about it.

The poetical main division of The Book of Job (Job Ch.3:1 – 42:6), presents dialogue of Job with his three friends who come to “mourn with him and comfort him”,

Eliphaz, of the children of Esau, king of the Thaemanites [the Themanites of Edom were famous for their wisdom (Jeremiah 49:7; Obadiah 5; Baruch 3:22 sq.)],

Baldad sovereign the Sauchaeans,

Sophar king of the Minaeans [Minoans].”(Septuagint – LXX. Job Ch.42:17 ).

12 And when they lifted up their eyes afar off,  and knew him not, they lifted up their voice,  and wept; and they rent every one his mantle, and sprinkled dust upon their heads toward heaven. 

 13 So they sat down with him upon the ground  seven days and seven nights, and none spake a word unto him: for they saw that his grief was very great”.(Job Ch.2:12-13)

The poetic part of the book follows the seven days of silence when Job opens his mouth and protests his innocence saying that he does not understand why he is afflicted. He curses the day of his birth and longs for death to bring an end to his sufferings.

The debate which ensues consists of three cycles of speeches. Job’s friends insist that his plight can only be punishment for personal wrongdoing and an invitation from God for repentance; Job rejects their inadequate explanation and says:

35 Oh that one would hear me! behold,  my desire is, that the Almighty would answer me,”(Job Ch.#:35)

At this point the speeches of a youth named Elihu (a Buzite, descendent of Nahor; brother of Abraham), interrupt the development. He assures Job that God

“…is excellent in power, and in judgment, and in plenty of justice: He will not afflict.”(Job Ch.37:23)  

 Elihu encourages Job to trust in God and be patient; and with his speech prepares Job for the epiphany. In response to Job’s plea that he be allowed to see God and hear from him the cause of suffering, God answers, not by justifying his action before man, but by referring to His own omniscience and almighty power. Job Ch.38 says:

1 Then the LORD answered Job out of the whirlwind, and said,           

2 Who is this that darkeneth counsel by words without knowledge?      

3 Gird up now thy loins like a man; for I will demand of thee, and answer thou me.

 4 Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth?   declare, if thou hast understanding.”

Over the next three chapters God questions Job’s knowledge regarding His creation.

The poetry part of the book ends with Jobs declaration:

 “2 I know that thou canst do every thing,  and that no thought can be withholden from thee. 

 3 Who is he that hideth counsel without knowledge?  therefore have I uttered that I understood not; things too wonderful for me, which I knew not. 

4 Hear, I beseech thee, and I will speak:  I will demand of thee, and declare thou unto me.   

5 I have heard of thee by the hearing of the ear:   but now mine eye seeth thee.

 6 Wherefore I abhor myself, and repent in dust and ashes.”(Job Ch.42:2-6)

 

Job recovers his attitude of humility and trust in God, which are deepen now and strengthened by his experience of suffering. The prose epilogue of The Book of Job tells that once more God visited Job with the rich tokens of His goodness and even greater prosperity than he had enjoyed before.  Job recovered not only his attitude and trust in God, but also his relationship with his family and friends. Then God blessed Job with great wealth and a long happy life. Job was also blessed again with seven sons and three daughters,

14 And he called the name of the first, Jemima; and the name of the second, Kezia; and the name of the third, Kerenhappuch.”

In Hebrew, the names of Job’s daughters suggest beauty both by their sound and by their meaning. Jemima means “dove”; Kezia means “cassia”- a variety of cinnamon used as a perfume; and Kerenhappuch –means a small box used for eye make-up.

15 And in all the land were no women found so fair as the daughters of Job: and their father gave them inheritance among their brethren.”

(Sharing inheritance with sisters was event unknown from any other part of the Bible). In the Septuagint-LXX, the ending of the Book of Job (Ch.42:17) which reads:

 17 So Job died, being old and full of days.”

is extended and reads as follow:

“ and it is written that he will rise up again

with those whom the Lord raises up.”

Published in: on February 25, 2012 at 4:08 am  Comments (2)  

The Minoans

It is believed that the Minoan civilization was the inspiration for Plato’s Atlantis, according to the dialogue in The Minoan Civilization-Atlantis Found? stating “Upon examination of Plato’s words on Atlantis as written in the dialogues Timaeus and Critias, we find many similarities between what archaeologists and historians know to be true for the Minoans, and characteristics Plato attributes to Atlantis and its occupants.” Through its similarities of culture, the use of the Mediterranean, advanced civilization, the location, Plato’s story of Poseidon, the use of ivory, and the reason of its decline, evidence suggest that the Minoans might be in fact the inspiration of Plato’s Atlantis.

Published in: on May 21, 2010 at 7:41 pm  Leave a Comment  
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The Lost Civilization

Before the Israelite incursions, in 10 century B.C., the Edomites controlled the trade routes from Arabia in the south to Damascus in the north. Little is known about them for general population, but for archeologists they are known for their wisdom, their writing, their textile industry, the excellence and fineness of their ceramics, and their skilled metal working.

But who were those people, why they are hidden away from our civilization?

The Bible tells us in
Genesis 36 (New International Version)

http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=genesis%2036&version=NIV

Genesis 36

Esau’s Descendants
” 1 This is the account of Esau (that is, Edom)…

…31 These were the kings who reigned in Edom before any Israelite king reigned :
32 Bela son of Beor became king of Edom. His city was named Dinhabah.
33 When Bela died, Jobab son of Zerah from Bozrah succeeded him as king.
34 When Jobab died, Husham from the land of the Temanites succeeded him as king.
35 When Husham died, Hadad son of Bedad, who defeated Midian in the country of Moab, succeeded him as king. His city was named Avith.
36 When Hadad died, Samlah from Masrekah succeeded him as king.
37 When Samlah died, Shaul from Rehoboth on the river succeeded him as king.
38 When Shaul died, Baal-Hanan son of Acbor succeeded him as king.
39 When Baal-Hanan son of Acbor died, Hadad succeeded him as king. His city was named Pau, and his wife’s name was Mehetabel daughter of Matred, the daughter of Me-Zahab…”

The Septuagint, LXX is the most ancient translation of the Old Testament in to Greek and consequently is invaluable to critics for understanding and correcting the Hebrew text (Massorah). The Septuagint was translated into Konya Greek for the newly established library of Alexandria during the reign of king Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-247 B.C.). Its oldest existing manuscript (Codex Vaticanus) was written in fourth century AD. In the Septuagint translation of the Book of Job, there is a long subscription; similar subscription is found in Arabic version and it says about the second king of Edom – Jobab:

Septuagint, LXX (Job CH 42:17)

“17 And Job died, an old man and full of days: and it is written that he will rise again with those whom the Lord raises up. This man is described in the Syriac book as living in the land of Ausis, on the borders of Idumea and Arabia: and his name before was Jobab; and having taken an Arabian wife, he begot a son whose name was Ennon. And he himself was the son of his father Zare, one of the sons of Esau, and of his mother Bosorrha, so that he was the fifth from Abraam. And these were the kings who reigned in Edom, which country he also ruled over: first, Balac, the son of Beor, and the name of his city was Dennaba: but after Balac, Jobab, who is called Job, and after him Asom, who was governor out of the country of Thaeman: and after him Adad, the son of Barad, who destroyed Madiam in the plain of Moab; and the name of his city was Gethaim. And his friends who came to him were Eliphaz, of the children of Esau, king of the Thaemanites, Baldad sovereign the Sauchaeans, Sophar king of the Minaeans.”

Who were those people, what do you know about them?

Please share your knowledge

Published in: on May 14, 2010 at 10:02 pm  Comments (6)  
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